Postgres EXCLUSION Constraint

Exclusion constraints ensure that if any two rows are compared on the specified columns or expressions using the specified operators, at least one of these operator comparisons will return false or null.

Example

For example, the following PostgreSQL statement creates a new table called COMPANY7 and adds five columns. Here, we add an EXCLUDE constraint −

You need to create the extension CREATE EXTENSION btree_gist, once per database. This will install the btree_gist extension, which defines the exclusion constraints on plain scalar data types.

CREATE TABLE COMPANY7(
   ID INT PRIMARY KEY     NOT NULL,
   NAME           TEXT,
   AGE            INT  ,
   ADDRESS        CHAR(50),
   SALARY         REAL,
   EXCLUDE USING gist
   (NAME WITH =,
   AGE WITH <>)
);

Here, USING gist is the type of index to build and use for enforcement.

As we have enforced the age has to be same, let us see this by inserting records to the table −

INSERT INTO COMPANY7 VALUES(1, 'Paul', 32, 'California', 20000.00 );
INSERT INTO COMPANY7 VALUES(2, 'Paul', 32, 'Texas', 20000.00 );
INSERT INTO COMPANY7 VALUES(3, 'Paul', 42, 'California', 20000.00 );

For the first two INSERT statements, the records are added to the COMPANY7 table. For the third INSERT statement, the following error is displayed −

ERROR:  conflicting key value violates exclusion constraint "company7_name_age_excl"
DETAIL:  Key (name, age)=(Paul, 42) conflicts with existing key (name, age)=(Paul, 32)

If you make another table company8 with gist exclude name with =,age with =, this time same inserts with name, age rejected.

source: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/postgresql/postgresql_constraints.htm

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